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■インフルエンザで肺組織に障害、マウスで観察に成功 東京大医科学研究所  [健康ダイジェスト]





 インフルエンザに感染したマウスの肺を生きたまま観察し、蛍光技術を使って免疫細胞の動きや血流の変化、肺組織の損傷の様子をとらえることに初めて成功したと、東京大学医科学研究所の河岡義裕教授(ウイルス学)らの研究チームが25日付のアメリカの「科学アカデミー紀要」(電子版)に発表しました。
 致死率の高いウイルスのほうが通常の季節性のウイルスよりも、血流速度の低下が早く起きるなど症状の違いも、判明しました。
 インフルエンザに感染した肺ではさまざまな免疫反応が起こりますが、肺は呼吸により動くため、生体で観察するのは困難でした。研究チームは、感染した細胞が蛍光を発するよう遺伝子改変したウイルスをマウスに感染させ、さらに肺の血流や免疫細胞の一種「好中球」を蛍光で光らせる薬剤を血管から投与。麻酔下で開胸し、特殊な顕微鏡を使って一定間隔で撮影した肺の画像を詳細に解析しました。
 致死率50%で流行が懸念されるH5N1型鳥インフルエンザと、季節性のウイルスをそれぞれ感染させたマウスに加え、健康なマウスも比較。感染したマウスの肺では血流が遅くなり、感染初期に好中球の数が増える一方、好中球の移動速度は落ちることがわかりました。そうした変化はH5N1型のほうが季節性より早く生じ、炎症や肺胞が潰れるなどの組織障害が激しく起こっていました。
 H5N1型が重篤化する理由の解明に役立つと期待され、河岡教授は「結果を数値化することもでき、ウイルスの特性の解明や治療法の開発などに役立つ可能性がある。また、他のさまざまな呼吸器感染症にも応用できる」と話しています。

 2018年6月28日(木)
nice!(6)  コメント(5) 
共通テーマ:健康

nice! 6

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